Wednesday, 22 January 2020

Legacy of Dravidian Movement - R. Appavu Rethinam BA.BL ( Senior Advocate )


Doctor Nadesanar , An important and prominent man left the congress party due to the atrocities and insult committed by the Brahmins . He organised Dravidar Sangam at his house in the year 1913 . Doctor T.M.Nair and L.G Aranga Ramanujam were also joined with Doctor Nadesanar for the formation of Dravidar Sangam . 

They have constructed hostel in the name of Dravidian Association hostel .In order to stay the students from Non Brahmin communities who were studying at Madras . This is the initial step taken by the Doctor Nadesanar , Sir Pitty Thiyagarayar and Doctor T.M .Nair for the elevation the Non brahmin development . This sangam is the foundation for the subsequent for South Indian people association, Justice party , Dravidar Kazhagam and Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam . 

Doctor Taravath Madhavan Nair was the famous doctor and he was associated with the Indian National congress . In 1912 Nair was elected to the Madras Legislative council . In 1917 Nair left the Indian National Congress due to prejudices in the Indian National Congress for his lost in Imperial Legislation election . Later he joined hands with Doctor Nadesanar and Sir Pitty Thiyagarayar . He fought for the broken community people till his demise . 

South Indian people association was formed for the welfare of the Non Brahmins of Madras state . After that the name of the said party was changed into South Indian Liberal Federation .They said party members started a news paper by name “Justice” .In order to communicate their ideals among the public . In the course of time automatically the common public named the name of the South Indian liberal federation as “ Justice Party” . 

         The Justice party contested in the 1920 Dec 17th Public election and won the state assembly election . One , A Subbarayalu Reddiar became the first minister in the state assembly . He passed away on July 1921 . 

Panagal King Ramaraya Lingar became the first minister in the cabinet and succeeded late Subbarayalu Reddiar. The Panagal King delete the name of the downtroddens as Panjamar  and named the said People as Adi - Dravidars. 

         He issued loan for purchasing houses for the Adi- Dravidars and did several measures for the upliftment of the Adi Dravidars. During his regime he gave voting rights for the women for the first time in India. He permitted students from all the communities apart from the brahmin students to study in schools as well as colleges . 

On 16/08/1921 he passed necessary orders for the appointment of all the community people in Government services . 

In Dec 1923 , Second General election was held and Justice party regained its majority and Panagal King became the first minister . During his second regime in the year 1926 ,He introduced  Hindu Religious Endowment Act and made reform in the Hindu religious institutions . 

He introduced democratic setup in administration of the temples and its income . Annamalai university was formed in order to give education to the Non Brahmins of the Madras state . 

He introduced medical act in order to give eduction to the Dravidian students . He introduced this act over coming the hard opposition of the act . 

In 1920, based on the idea of Sir Pitty  Theagaraya Chetty , the then President of the Justice Party, A Subbarayalu Reddiar, the First  Minister of Madras Presidency, implemented the mid-day meal scheme in a Corporation school in Thousand Lights area.He is the chief architect of the Mid day meal scheme . He is the man who disclosed about the welfare of Mid day meal system in the world. He was the most wealthiest man in the madras state but he spent all his wealth for the welfare of the common public. He went into the extent of pledging his own residential house for the sake of public . On 15/11/1928 Panagal King passed away .

In 1928, when two of Subbarayan's ministers R. N. Arogyasamy Mudaliar and A. Ranganatha Mudaliar resigned, Subbarayan invited Muthiah to take over the portfolios of education and excise which Ranganatha Mudaliar had held. 

Muthiah accepted the invitation and served as the Minister of Education and Excise in the independent ministry from 1928 to 1930. When  when two of Subbarayan's ministers R. N. Arogyasamy Mudaliar and A. Ranganatha Mudaliar resigned .Muthiah Mudaliar is remembered for introducing the 
Communal G. O. Ms No. 1021 to implement the 1921 order. 

Justice party introduced communal reservation and paved the way for the upliftment of downtrodden people in the Madras Province . 

Another stalwart in the justice party  is Doctor  Muthulakshmi Reddy . She is  the first woman doctor in India . When she was member of state assembly on 02/11/1927 she had submitted the abolition of Devadasi system . The said act was introduced only in the year 1947 when Omanthoor Ramasamy reddiyar was the chief minister . 

The achievements during the regime of Justice party clearly proved that Justice party did “Justice” to the public.

- R. Appavu Rethinam BA.BL ( Senior Advocate ) 

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